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In epistemological terms, however, little has changed. In addition, the federal government has collaborated with members of the research community in a broad, still ongoing fact-finding, data-gathering and problem-solving endeavour on a wide range of social and economic issues that are perceived as potential threats to the well-being of Canadians and to the general cohesion of Canadian society. The work of the Harvard Project researchers has had much influence within Aboriginal circles in Canada, having inspired the advocacy efforts and sociopolitical vision of many Aboriginal leaders. En partenariat avec l’EÌtat: les expériences de cogestion des Autochtones du Canada. Policy Study 43. 1998. Aboriginal quality of life as a vantage point to clarify how in Canada, provincial governments may address, or fail to address, Aboriginal poverty. Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Native Residential Schools. Thus, an environment that ensures a person can experience a life of quality is one that “provides for basic needs to be met (food, shelter, safety, social contact)[;] provides for a range of opportunities within the individual’s potential[; and] provides for control and choice within that environment.”. In his account of the Canadian state’s management of Indian welfare policy from 1873 to 1965, Hugh Shewell shows how social scientists were called upon by Indian Affairs in the early years of the postwar period to shed light on the various aspects of Aboriginal social behaviour, psychological dispositions and their economic situation so as to devise policies and programs that could promote the full integration of Aboriginal people into Canadian society. Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks. Chataway, Cynthia. For an overview of key programs, see Newhouse, Fitzmaurice, and Belanger (2005). Suicide is perhaps the most dramatic indicator of distress in Aboriginal communities and, understandably, an important focus of attention in the specialized literature on the mental health and well-being of Aboriginal people. But as Maaka and Fleras remind us, “any moves to re-prime the constitutional agenda by re-configuring the political landscape will remain muddled without a political will to absorb the pending shocks” (2005: 210). Initially, fast reading without taking notes and underlines should be done. They clearly intimate that the quality of life of Aboriginal people would be greatly improved if the current band council-driven system of governance was completely overhauled in favour of mechanisms that would submit Aboriginal political and administrative leaders to close and inescapable accountability and that would give individuals a much greater measure of autonomy and control over their leaders. Howe Institute. This literature is usually quite informative, and takes stock of various psychosocial problems affecting Aboriginal communities, though it tends to focus primarily on the nature of the phenomena observed rather than on their policy implications. It shies away, in other words, from exploring the systemic obstacles to the improvement of Aboriginal socioeconomic conditions, and emphasizes instead the creation of social capital and capacity development, a much less controversial handle on the question of Aboriginal quality of life — and much less threatening to the status quo — clearly implying that the source of the problem is the community itself, its inability to prevent the failure of its integrative functions or to adapt to the demands of the global environment. 2006. First Nations Health Action Plan. This, of course, is hardly news. Nevertheless, a substantial majority among them would not disagree that a greater measure of Aboriginal self-government would go a long way toward levelling the playing field for Aboriginal people and consolidating Canada’s democratic outlook, and that such a move would in no way threaten the permanency of the Canadian state. Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks. While one gets from it a good sense of where things stand, the approach does not really offer in the end an explicit vision of the policy direction that would best tackle the most pressing quality-of-life issues faced by Aboriginal people in Canada.11. Smith argues that Canada’s Aboriginal policy must be rethought and reframed on the basis of two incontrovertible principles: Aboriginal self-reliance and equality under the law. Forty years after the Hawthorn Report, ten years after the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (Canada 1996) exposed the socioeconomic inequality and exclusion widely experienced by members of Aboriginal communities, after countless additional studies and, one might add, regular admonitions by the international community for Canada’s failing to meet international standards of social justice and human rights when it comes to Aboriginal people,2 policy-makers are well aware of the social and economic differences that separate Aboriginal people from other Canadians. Los Angeles: University of California at Los Angeles, American Indian Studies Center. In reality, the research agenda and analytical perspective that inform the First Nations Cohesion Project partake of a long tradition of state-driven research on Aboriginal people in Canada, which is essentially determined by state concern for effective Aboriginal policy management. Their evocation of Aboriginal traditions and philosophies is essentially suggestive — a guideline, not an absolute prerequisite. Fixico, Donald L. 2003. Quebec City: Presses de l’Université Laval and les Éditions de l’IQRC. The willpower to change oneself and transform one’s community may well be active and genuine, but it could also be hampered by structural and systemic impediments that are far-reaching and stronger than the resolve of all the well-intentioned individuals of a community. A Critical Review of the Literature.” International Journal of Rehabilitation Research 12 (2): 121-36. In the end, she argues, the Harvard Project proffers a vision of Aboriginal economic development unsuitable for most Aboriginal communities and only reinforces the attempts of the state to tone down their otherness. “The Applied Theory of First Nations Economic Development: A Critique.” Journal of Aboriginal Economic Development 4 (2): 120-28. Terminology. Four decades later, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, using more sophisticated data and more refined methods of statistical analysis, echoed the Hawthorn Report: “Well-being certainly improved in First Nations between 1991 and 2001 and they did move toward equality with other Canadian communities. Finally, insofar as the wider community is concerned, the medicine wheel incorporates the political and administrative environment, where the quality and effectiveness of people’s participation and decision-making power in matters that directly affect their lives are indicators of the good life; the social environment, where societywide patterns of human interactions are defined and where a measure of the good life would be the community’s openness to and support of individuals and groups working toward positive social change; the economic environment, where the development and maintenance of long-term, sustainable systems of production that empower individuals, preserve the environment and contribute to community capacity are objectives meant to ensure a good quality of life; and the cultural and spiritual environment, where the presence of a respectful dialogue on values and an appreciation for diversity are important indicators of well-being (Four Worlds International Institute n.d., part 1). 2001. It is not that it is nonexistent, but it is not uncommon for writers and practitioners in the field of Aboriginal community development to find merit in whatever approach seems to work in any given instance, even if it happens to be one to which they may not be immediately drawn. (Wuttunee 2004b, 24). Toronto: C.D. Howe Institute paper, Richards (2003) totally endorses Allard’s proposal to pay treaty benefits to individuals, regardless of their place of residence, and suggests introducing ownsource taxation to Indian bands. They were tailored to the state’s needs rather than to a sympathetic appreciation of the situation facing First Nations. Accessed June 1, 2006. www.taxpayer.com. Aboriginal Policy Research: Setting the Agenda for Change. For generations now, we have been on a quest for political power and money; somewhere along the journey from the past to the future, we seem to have forgotten that when we started out our goal was to reconnect with our lands and to preserve our culture and way of life. These questions are not meant to raise doubts about the ability of Aboriginal communities to govern themselves; they suggest, rather, that the reality of sociopolitical conflict must be acknowledged and better understood so as to grasp and eventually act upon the dynamics of opposition that are likely to affect negatively the capacity of a community to create and maintain proper conditions of general well-being. Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan. _____. 2000. Google Scholar. attempts to avoid objects or situations that arouse anxiety) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Accessed May 14, 2006. www.4worlds.org. 2006. In 1995, the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples released a special report in which it identified four groups of risk factors associated with suicide: psychobiological (depression, anxiety, schizophrenia), situational (disruptions of family, forced attendance at residential schools, long-term illnesses), socioeconomic (poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing) and cultural stress (erosion of belief systems and spirituality, loss of control over the land, racial discrimination, weakening of political and social institutions). _____. “Landscapes of Memory: Trauma, Narrative and Dissociations.” In Tense Past: Cultural Essays on Memory and Trauma, edited by P. Antze and M. Lambek. However, many times Canadians neglect to … This approach also does not question whether macrostructural dimensions such as the dominant pattern of power relations or the inner logic of the Canadian political economy might be at cause. Accessed May 13, 2006. www.nber.org/papers/w11807. Bourdieu, Pierre. Established in 1999 with the financial support of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, this particular research initiative has led, among other things, to two major Aboriginal research policy conferences, in 2002 and 2006, with hundreds of participants from government, academic circles and Aboriginal organizations. For Canada, a key problem is the under-representation of Aboriginal voices in government and the over-representation of Aboriginals living in the streets. As this brief overview indicates, ways of understanding and assessing quality of life and well-being are diverse. Stairs, A. Toronto: C.D. CPRN Social Architecture Papers, Research Report F40. 1965. One cannot help but be struck in particular by the poor aggregate performance of Aboriginal populations relative to non-Aboriginal people on all key indicators of the. _____. Canada sits on an enviable top-10 perch when it comes to quality of life around the world, but a new analysis points to significant disparity among its provinces and territories. The many different ways of addressing and conceiving Aboriginal well-being and the seeming inability or unwillingness of the state to abide fully by the constitutionally entrenched recognition of Aboriginal people’s inherent right to live by their own cultural and political norms bear witness to the eminently political and ideological nature of the stakes involved in any consideration of how to improve Aboriginal quality of life. “Enough to Keep Them Alive”: Indian Welfare in Canada, 1873-1965. As the preceding discussion suggested, questions related to Aboriginal quality of life pose a fairly difficult and perplexing conundrum for Canadian policymakers. 1999. I am grateful for the expertise of Joyce Green, David Newhouse and Carole Lévesque, who generously offered their judicious comments and adviceAcknowledgements. The radical and uncompromising tone of their respective positions and their emphasis on issues of identity, sovereignty and constitutional law lend their work a political — some would say ideological — resonance. Macklem, Patrick. Respondents were also asked to place in order of priority a list of 11 government tasks: improving the quality of life of Aboriginal people came in second-tolast. He does not mean that existing treaty rights and Aboriginal interests, as defined by law and the Constitution, are not valid: First Nations’ rights to reserves and established rights must be honoured, but “beyond that, the rule of law extends no solace.” Programs and benefits extended by ordinary legislation are subject to repeal or amendment just like any others provided to Canadians (including tax exemptions); similarly, the interests of non-Aboriginal people must also be protected, particularly against supposed Aboriginal legal entitlements over land that is, in fact, the entitlement of all Canadians without distinction. There is no denying that numerous Aboriginal communities have seen their lot improve substantially thanks to the work of community-conscious and culturally sensitive individuals and organizations, including state agencies. Report on Growth, Human Development and Social Cohesion. In fairness, one must acknowledge that such hard questions have already been asked, more than once. The findings suggest that Aboriginal residential school survivors and Aboriginal non-residential school attendees both experience poorer health and quality of life compared to non-Aboriginals, as well as higher rates of diabetes. Noticing that off-reserve Aboriginal students tend to perform better in school than their on-reserve peers, Richards suggests that “reform requires greater professionalism in school administration” and, following Allard’s view, argues that this, “in turn, will almost certainly require individual bands to cede authority over schools to larger organizations such as tribal councils or to new, province-wide Aboriginal school boards, and that reserve schools [should] integrate curricula and student testing more closely with the relevant province” (2006, 122). Evidence has been available for some time on the complex web of physiological, psychological, spiritual, historical, cultural, economic and environmental factors that have combined over time to create among Aboriginal communities a widespread and generalized state of ill health (Waldram, Herring, and Young 1995), which, most authors infer, constitutes a major obstacle to these communities’ ability to elaborate the appropriate measures of redress for a better socioeconomic and political future. The manuscript was copy-edited by Barry Norris, proofreading was by Barbara Czarnecki, production was by Anne Tremblay, art direction was by Schumacher Design and printing was by Impressions Graphiques. Personal healing and the process of reclaiming control over one’s personal life are key aspects of the approach of such studies (see Dossa 1989; Huppert and Baylis 2004). “What Matters? The Dark Side of the Nation. CANDO was founded in 1990 by economic development officers (EDOs) from across Canada to provide a national body to focus on the training, education and networking opportunities necessary to serve their communities and/or organizations as professionals. Substantial efforts have been made in recent years across the social and life sciences to strip the term of its relativistic nature so as to make it less approximate, more tangible and, ultimately, more measurable and more reliable as an indicator and predictor of individual and social development. While it is true that governments contribute a significant amount of financial and human resources to improve the socioeconomic conditions of Aboriginal people, many programs and policies are not as efficient as might be expected in enhancing their quality of life. Tremblay, Marc-Adélard, and Carole Lévesque. CANDO’s stated mission includes, among other objectives, building capacity both for individuals engaged in economic development and for the community; actively supporting community economic development initiatives toward strong, competitive and self-sustaining Aboriginal economies; and providing and facilitating educational and training opportunities (see CANDO’s Web site at http://www.edo.ca). This publication was produced under the direction of F. Leslie Seidle, Senior Research Associate, IRPP. Forty years ago, the authors of A Survey of the Contemporary Indians of Canada, also known as the Hawthorn Report, wrote: It has become increasingly evident in recent years…that the majority of the Indian population constitutes a group economically depressed in terms of the standards that have become widely accepted in Canada. The twin ideas that the current institutional structures of Aboriginal governance are inadequate and that individual rights are superior to collective arrangements are recurring, interwoven motifs of the equality argument. The primary focus of evidence-based studies on documenting the end results of the socioeconomic marginalization of Aboriginal people neglects in the end to engage in a much-needed examination of the social processes of exclusion that are at work. Like most other Western jurisdictions, the Canadian state has made appreciable cuts in welfare programs, unemployment assistance and social services over the past decades. We are divided amongst ourselves and confused in our minds about who we are and what kind of life we should be living. 2000. Yet, despite the impressive amount of knowledge accumulated so far about the nature of the problems and the challenges, about the conditions for success and positive change and about which policy solutions work and which do not, the policy community is still wrestling with the unrelenting persistence of appreciable socioeconomic disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. For example, the prevalence of suicide, particularly among youth, in many Aboriginal communities across Canada has mobilized the scholarly attention of a number of specialists. Unfortunately, Aboriginal homelessness in Canada proves that the quality of life is very poor for one particular minority group. To many students of Aboriginal mental health and psychological unease, the most glaring problems seen in Aboriginal communities (high rates of suicide, violence, alcoholism and pervasive demoralization) are the direct consequences of a history of cultural disintegration, disruption of traditional patterns of subsistence and forced separation from the land (Duran and Duran 1995; Waldram 1997; York 1990). “The Place of Social Capital in Understanding Social and Economic Outcomes.” Isuma: Canadian Journal of Policy Research 2 (1): 11-17. The above suggestions imply that new research questions need to be formulated. As a result, the literature that derives from the social capital/capacitybuilding perspective is mainly concerned with the conditions of Aboriginal empowerment and the desirable path to it. Funding is regularly extended and opportunities have been created through Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Human Resources Development Canada, Canadian Heritage and several other federal government agencies to help band and tribal councils meet the demands of program management and equip the members of their communities with the necessary skills and education to adjust to labour market imperatives and to take control of their own community economic development. Mentally healthy individuals are more likely to contribute positively to their community, and a community of mentally healthy individuals will be better equipped to acquire and provide its members with the requisites of a life of good quality. 1995. 2002. 1996. New York: Simon and Schuster. 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