stream 502 0 obj <> endobj 0000007167 00000 n Testing on humans is also not even testing. x�b``c`����� �� ̀ �l�,�,l� ��/�`Qi *���pҘ�2�׸�� p-zy;}B�s�U��������^�;o_=���du����V���{�C킫��/�Y�v����+�D,z�昃�$�`E�Ɏu��9_?��'�����nbRR�0����� �耨MK�9��Ja���P�� � � Human cells have been used to create innovative little devices called ‘organs-on-chips’. Russell and R.L. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. The free, open access distribution of Alternatives to Animal Testing is enabled by the Creative Commons Attribution license in International version 4: CC BY 4.0. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. � � T 0� �`jf0 ߔ 0000008028 00000 n %PDF-1.7 %���� This is a PDF file of an … reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative … Next to in vitro alternatives that have been described and val­idated for the assessment of skin sensitization potency of chem­ical compounds, strategies to replace in vivo testing include in silico … ���@�G)!��&��9�N�O��n6�LfM��ȗ�����i��p ��>��@H���JA���j���ΒSX��Jk�N���!/��3��3��%�ƙ ���0ͼ���pz��%i)�h2j�4���62B_ 0000005028 00000 n 0000319719 00000 n 216 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 218 /H [ 708 598 ] /L 554421 /E 7897 /N 23 /T 549982 >> endobj xref 216 15 0000000016 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000001306 00000 n 0000001539 00000 n 0000002647 00000 n 0000002938 00000 n 0000003230 00000 n 0000004340 00000 n 0000006143 00000 n 0000006267 00000 n 0000006290 00000 n 0000007392 00000 n 0000007672 00000 n 0000000708 00000 n 0000001284 00000 n trailer << /Size 231 /Info 211 0 R /Root 217 0 R /Prev 549971 /ID[<9238f3963338cf637d4bcddd96f4234f><9238f3963338cf637d4bcddd96f4234f>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 217 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 210 0 R >> endobj 229 0 obj << /S 411 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 230 0 R >> stream Costs of Animal and Non-Animal Testing Humane Society International Some animal tests take months or years to conduct and analyze (e.g., 4-5 years, in the case of rodent cancer studies), at a … 0000007872 00000 n 0000228455 00000 n 1 Introduction to Alternative Methods. Scientists have even managed to coax cells to grow into 3D structures, such as miniature human organs, which can provide a more realistic way to test new therapies. )�-�3��P�Q���u:,PC4NC)�@8�M@�,�]0��Ft����2f�! 0000012341 00000 n MHjL�1�BL�)K��I@Fg�HKX0��|��#3��#2���������������������wwww��������������������������� ������������������ ����� ������������������� ���������� 0� �`jf0 ߔ trailer 0000225139 00000 n 0000003824 00000 n ... are an approach that can reduce the number of drugs going through safety and toxicology testing in animals, which would reduce the number of animals used in testing. 0000244480 00000 n 0000011003 00000 n 0000002874 00000 n The EU, consisting of 28 member states, became the world’s first set of countries to ban cosmetic animal testing and trade. In … Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal … 0000320477 00000 n 0000225938 00000 n Naturally there are … 0000007404 00000 n 0000004834 00000 n n�$���?a�*����t��BJ4��P�9-X���x�1�0SbÅ��2��* 0000175582 00000 n The poor animals are even poorer in India as in recent past only, the UK-based National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) issued a report on Indian animal testing … Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. These and other non-animal methods are not hindered by species differences that make applying animal test … The NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) is an NTP office focused on the development and evaluation of alternatives to animal use for chemical safety testing. 0000008264 00000 n Prokaryotes are often used as an alternative to animal testing. 0000321956 00000 n Our programs seek to provide a better, safer, more humane future for people and animals. doing the type of animal testing they can here. Alternatives to Animal Testing No, there are not good alternatives to animal testing, because alternatives do not do a sufficient job of making sure products and medicines are safe. <<475339DA39DD5748AA1B3B3A36242FCC>]>> Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the ethical issues of animal testing and demanding new kinds of products. 0000228599 00000 n 0000124614 00000 n 0000011866 00000 n �m�V����_�V�U(�PA6[F� ��v2��C}ĩs�F#1p�r6��\�n�T"M�c}�\A �b���n4�L2���� 4����1�Ϯ��A�y��)|�L�u��%��\Y1�Uo�ˊ�),�P(��(�7O�%�ڨ&�s�0 0000007639 00000 n 0000006367 00000 n 0000243164 00000 n 0000008987 00000 n Learn more about … 0000033810 00000 n 0000227633 00000 n To make sure that adequate time was given to find non-animal … 0000007482 00000 n 0000004498 00000 n 0000005478 00000 n Download full-text PDF. 0000006928 00000 n 0000007561 00000 n 0000009276 00000 n 0000007794 00000 n 0000320664 00000 n 62 MB Format : PDF, ePub, Docs Download : 752 Read : 796 Get This Book 0000320056 00000 n 0000003588 00000 n 0000008106 00000 n Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. 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